Accommodation and vergence response gains to different near cues characterize specific esotropias

Horwood,A Riddell P. Strabismus. 2013; 21(3), 155-164

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  • Esotropic children with different types of strabismus use near cues differently and characteristically from non-strabismic children. Accommodative esotropias use blur cues more than typical children.


To describe preliminary findings of how the profile of the use of blur, disparity and proximal cues varies between non-strabismic groups and those with different types of esotropia.


Case control study Methodology. A remote haploscopic photorefractor measured simultaneous convergence and accommodation to a range of targets containing all combinations of binocular disparity, blur and proximal (looming) cues. 13 constant esotropes, 16 fully accommodative esotropes, and 8 convergence excess esotropes were compared with age and refractive error matched controls, and 27 young adult emmetropic controls. All wore full refractive correction if not emmetropic. Response AC/A and CA/C ratios were also assessed.


Cue use differed between the groups. Even esotropes with constant suppression and no binocular vision (BV) responded to disparity in cues. The constant esotropes with weak BV showed trends for more stable responses and better vergence and accommodation than those without any BV. The accommodative esotropes made less use of disparity cues to drive accommodation (p=0.04) and more use of blur to drive vergence (p=0.008) than controls. All esotropic groups failed to show the strong bias for better responses to disparity cues found in the controls, with convergence excess esotropes favoring blur cues. AC/A and CA/C ratios existed in an inverse relationship in the different groups. Accommodative lag of >1.0D at 33cm was common (46%) in the pooled esotropia groups compared with 11% in typical children (p=0.05).


Esotropic children use near cues differently from matched non-esotropic children in ways characteristic to their deviations. Relatively higher weighting for blur cues was found in accommodative esotropia compared to matched controls.