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Department of Meteorology – University of Reading

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Dr. Till Kuhlbrodt

Senior Research Fellow (NCAS)

Till Kuhlbrodt - Department of Meteorology - University of Reading


Till Kuhlbrodt

MetOffice - NERC  

Model Configuration Manager for UKESM: Developing the low-resolution version of HadGEM3 for the UK Earth System Model European Union  

2018 - 2023: NCAS Science Theme Leader for Long-term Global Change

2010 - 2014: Senior Research Fellow at NCAS-Climate with the European Research Council project SEACHANGE

2008 - 2010: Holder of a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship
within the 7th European Community Framework Programme FP7 People/ Marie Curie IEF

Main research interests

  • Earth System model development and evaluation
  • Processes of ocean heat uptake and heat transport in models and observations
  • Mesoscale eddy-induced transports and wind-driven overturning cells in the Southern Ocean
  • Dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and its representation in global climate models


Have a look at my publications or my ORCID record.

Things to do now


  • Email: t.kuhlbrodt (at)
  • Telephone:
    +44 (0) 118 378 5205
  • Fax:
    +44 (0) 118 378 8316
  • Address:
    Department of Meteorology
    Earley Gate
    PO Box 243
    RG6 6BB

Centaur Publications

Jump to: 2024 | 2023 | 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000
Number of items: 43.


Gregory, J. M. ORCID:, Bloch-Johnson, J. ORCID:, Couldrey, M. P., Exarchou, E., Griffies, S. M., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Newsom, E., Saenko, O. A., Suzuki, T., Wu, Q., Urakawa, S. and Zanna, L. (2024) A new conceptual model of global ocean heat uptake. Climate Dynamics, 62 (3). pp. 1669-1713. ISSN 1432-0894 doi:

Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Swaminathan, R. ORCID:, Ceppi, P. and Wilder, T. (2024) A glimpse into the future: the 2023 ocean temperature and sea-ice extremes in the context of longer-term climate change. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. ISSN 1520-0477 doi: (In Press)


Xavier, P., Willett, M., Graham, T., Earnshaw, P., Copsey, D., Narayan, N., Marzin, C., Zhu, H., Sellar, A., Ackerley, D., Blockley, E., Bodas-Salcedo, A., Bushell, A., Choi, N., Chua, X. R., Guiavarc’h, C., Hassim, M., Heming, J., Hudson, D., Ineson, S., Jones, C., Keane, R. J., Kim, K., Kim, J., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, In Lee, M., Le, C., Martin, G., Mccabe, A., Moise, A., Ridley, J., Robert, L., Sahany, S., Schiemann, R. K. H. ORCID:, Storkey, D., Tennant, W., Tomassini, L., Tsushima, Y., Weedon, G. P., West, A., Wheeler, M., Zhou, X. and Zhu, H., (2023) Assessment of the Met Office Global Coupled model version 5 (GC5)configurations. Report. Met Office, Exeter. pp41.

Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Voldoire, A., Palmer, M. D., Geoffroy, O. and Killick, R. E. (2023) Historical ocean heat uptake in two pairs of CMIP6 models: global and regional perspectives. Journal of Climate, 36 (7). pp. 2183-2203. ISSN 1520-0442 doi:

Mulcahy, J. P. ORCID:, Jones, C. G. ORCID:, Rumbold, S. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Dittus, A. ORCID:, Blockley, E. W. ORCID:, Yool, A. ORCID:, Walton, J. ORCID:, Hardacre, C., Andrews, T., Bodas-Salcedo, A., Stringer, M. ORCID:, de Mora, L. ORCID:, Harris, P. ORCID:, Hill, R., Kelley, D. ORCID:, Robertson, E. and Tang, Y. (2023) UKESM1.1: development and evaluation of an updated configuration of the UK Earth System Model. Geoscientific Model Development, 16 (6). pp. 1569-1600. ISSN 1991-9603 doi:


Hochet, A., Tailleux, R. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Ferreira, D. ORCID: (2021) Global heat balance and heat uptake in potential temperature coordinates. Climate Dynamics, 57. pp. 2021-2035. ISSN 0930-7575 doi:

Yool, A. ORCID:, Palmiéri, J. ORCID:, Jones, C. G. ORCID:, de Mora, L. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Popova, E. E., Nurser, A. J. G. ORCID:, Hirschi, J. ORCID:, Blaker, A. T. ORCID:, Coward, A. C. ORCID:, Blockley, E. W. ORCID: and Sellar, A. A. ORCID: (2021) Evaluating the physical and biogeochemical state of the global ocean component of UKESM1 in CMIP6 historical simulations. Geoscientific Model Development, 14 (6). pp. 3437-3472. ISSN 1991-9603 doi:


Robson, J. ORCID:, Aksenov, Y., Bracegirdle, T. J., Dimdore-Miles, O., Griffiths, P. T., Grosvenor, D. P., Hodson, D. L.R. ORCID:, Keeble, J., MacIntosh, C., Megann, A., Osprey, S., Povey, A. C., Schröder, D. ORCID:, Yang, M., Archibald, A. T., Carslaw, K. S., Gray, L., Jones, C., Kerridge, B., Knappett, D., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Russo, M., Sellar, A., Siddans, R., Sinha, B., Sutton, R. ORCID:, Walton, J. and Wilcox, L. J. ORCID: (2020) The evaluation of the North Atlantic climate system in UKESM1 historical simulations for CMIP6. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12 (9). e2020MS002126. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

de Mora, L., Sellar, A. A., Yool, A., Palmieri, J., Smith, R. S. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Parker, R. J., Walton, J., Blackford, J. C. and Jones, C. G. (2020) Earth system music: music generated from the United Kingdom Earth System Model (UKESM1). Geoscience Communications, 3 (2). pp. 263-278. ISSN 2569-7110 doi:

Yool, A., Palmiéri, J., Jones, C. G., Sellar, A. A., de Mora, L., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Popova, E. E., Mulcahy, J. P., Wiltshire, A., Rumbold, S. T. ORCID:, Stringer, M., Hill, R. S. R., Tang, Y., Walton, J., Blaker, A., Nurser, A. J. G., Coward, A. C., Hirschi, J., Woodward, S., Kelley, D. I., Ellis, R. and Rumbold‐Jones, S. (2020) Spin‐up of UK Earth system model 1 (UKESM1) for CMIP6. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12 (8). e2019MS001933. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

Andrews, M. B., Ridley, J. K., Wood, R. A., Andrews, T., Blockley, E. W., Booth, B., Burke, E., Dittus, A. J. ORCID:, Florek, P., Gray, L. J., Haddad, S., Hardiman, S. C., Hermanson, L., Hodson, D. ORCID:, Hogan, E., Jones, G. S., Knight, J. R., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Misios, S., Mizielinski, M. S., Ringer, M. A., Robson, J. ORCID: and Sutton, R. T. ORCID: (2020) Historical simulations with HadGEM3-GC3.1 for CMIP6. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12 (6). e2019MS001995. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

Sellar, A. A., Walton, J., Jones, C. G., Wood, R., Abraham, N. L., Andrejczuk, M., Andrews, M. B., Andrews, T., Archibald, A. T., de Mora, L., Dyson, H., Elkington, M., Ellis, R., Florek, P., Good, P., Gohar, L., Haddad, S., Hardiman, S. C., Hogan, E., Iwi, A., Jones, C. D., Johnson, B., Kelley, D. I., Kettleborough, J., Knight, J. R., Köhler, M. O., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Liddicoat, S., Linova‐Pavlova, I., Mizielinski, M. S., Morgenstern, O., Mulcahy, J., Neininger, E., O'Connor, F. M., Petrie, R., Ridley, J., Rioual, J.‐C., Roberts, M., Robertson, E., Rumbold, S. ORCID:, Seddon, J., Shepherd, H., Shim, S., Stephens, A., Teixiera, J. C., Tang, Y., Williams, J., Wiltshire, A. and Griffiths, P. T. (2020) Implementation of U.K. Earth system models for CMIP6. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12 (4). e2019MS001946. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

Andrews, T., Andrews, M. B., Bodas‐Salcedo, A., Jones, G. S., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Manners, J., Menary, M. B., Ridley, J., Ringer, M. A., Sellar, A. A., Senior, C. A. and Tang, Y. (2020) Forcings, feedbacks and climate sensitivity in HadGEM3‐GC3.1 and UKESM1. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11 (12). pp. 4377-4394. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

Hewitt, H. T. ORCID:, Roberts, M., Mathiot, P., Biastoch, A., Blockley, E., Chassignet, E. P., Fox-Kemper, B., Hyder, P., Marshall, D. P., Popova, E., Treguier, A.-M., Zanna, L., Yool, A., Yu, Y., Beadling, R., Bell, M., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Arsouze, T., Bellucci, A., Castruccio, F., Gan, B., Putrasahan, D., Roberts, C. D., Van Roekel, L. and Zhang, Q. (2020) Resolving and parameterising the ocean mesoscale in earth system models. Current Climate Change Reports, 6. pp. 137-152. ISSN 2198-6061 doi:


Roberts, M. J., Baker, A. ORCID:, Blockley, E. W., Calvert, D., Coward, A., Hewitt, H. T., Jackson, L. C., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Mathiot, P., Roberts, C. D., Schiemann, R. ORCID:, Seddon, J., Vanniere, B. ORCID: and Vidale, P. L. ORCID: (2019) Description of the resolution hierarchy of the global coupled HadGEM3-GC3.1 model as used in CMIP6 HighResMIP experiments. Geoscientific Model Development, 12 (12). pp. 4999-5028. ISSN 1991-9603 doi:

Hochet, A., Tailleux, R. ORCID:, Ferreira, D. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Tailleux, R. ORCID: (2019) Isoneutral control of effective diapycnal mixing in numerical ocean models with neutral rotated diffusion tensors. Ocean Science, 15. pp. 21-23. ISSN 1812-0784 doi:

Sellar, A. A., Jones, C. G., Mulcahy, J., Tang, Y., Yool, A., Wiltshire, A., O'Connor, F. M., Stringer, M., Hill, R., Palmieri, J., Woodward, S., De Mora, L., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Rumbold, S. ORCID:, Kelley, D. I., Ellis, R., Johnson, C. E., Walton, J., Abraham, N. L., Andrews, M. B., Andrews, T., Archibald, A. T., Berthou, S., Burke, E., Blockley, E., Carslaw, K., Dalvi, M., Edwards, J., Folberth, G. A., Gedney, N., Griffiths, P. T., Harper, A. B., Hendry, M. A., Hewitt, A. J., Johnson, B., Jones, A., Jones, C. D., Keeble, J., Liddicoat, S., Morgenstern, O., Parker, R. J., Predoi, V., Robertson, E., Siahaan, A., Smith, R. S. ORCID:, Swaminathan, R. ORCID:, Woodhouse, M. T., Zeng, G. and Zerroukat, M. (2019) UKESM1: description and evaluation of the UK Earth System Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11 (12). pp. 4513-4558. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:


Menary, M. B., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Ridley, J., Andrews, M. B., Dimdore-Miles, O. B., Deshayes, J., Eade, R., Gray, L., Ineson, S., Mignot, J., Roberts, C. D., Robson, J. ORCID:, Wood, R. A. and Xavier, P. (2018) Preindustrial control simulations with HadGEM3-GC3.1 for CMIP6. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10 (12). pp. 3049-3075. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Jones, C. G., Sellar, A., Storkey, D., Blockley, E., Stringer, M., Hill, R., Graham, T., Ridley, J., Blaker, A., Calvert, D., Copsey, D., Ellis, R., Hewitt, H., Hyder, P., Ineson, S., Mulcahy, J., Siahaan, A. and Walton, J. (2018) The low-resolution version of HadGEM3 GC3.1: development and evaluation for global climate. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10 (11). pp. 2865-2888. ISSN 1942-2466 doi:

de Mora, L., Yool, A., Palmieri, J., Sellar, A., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Popova, E., Jones, C. and Allen, J. I. (2018) BGC-val: a model- and grid-independent Python toolkit to evaluate marine biogeochemical models. Geoscientific Model Development, 11 (10). pp. 4215-4240. ISSN 1991-9603 doi:

Storkey, D., Blaker, A. T., Mathiot, P., Megann, A., Aksenov, Y., Blockley, E. W., Calvert, D., Graham, T., Hewitt, H. T., Hyder, P., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Rae, J. G. L. and Sinha, B. (2018) UK Global Ocean GO6 and GO7: a traceable hierarchy of model resolutions. Geoscientific Model Development, 11 (8). pp. 3187-3213. ISSN 1991-9603 doi:


Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Gregory, J. ORCID: and Shaffrey, L. ORCID: (2015) A process-based analysis of ocean heat uptake in an AOGCM with an eddy-permitting ocean component. Climate Dynamics, 45 (11). pp. 3205-3226. ISSN 1432-0894 doi:

Exarchou, E., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Gregory, J. M. ORCID: and Smith, R. S. ORCID: (2015) Ocean heat uptake processes: a model intercomparison. Journal of Climate, 28 (2). pp. 887-908. ISSN 1520-0442 doi:

Huber, M., Tailleux, R. ORCID:, Ferreira, D. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Gregory, J. ORCID: (2015) A traceable physical calibration of the vertical advection-diffusion equation for modelling ocean heat uptake. Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (7). pp. 2333-2341. ISSN 0094-8276 doi:


Bouttes, N., Gregory, J.M. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Smith, R.S. ORCID: (2014) The drivers of projected North Atlantic sea level change. Climate Dynamics, 43 (5-6). pp. 1531-1544. ISSN 0930-7575 doi:


Ballarotta, M., Drijfhout, S., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Döös, K. (2013) The residual circulation of the Southern Ocean: which spatio-temporal scales are needed? Ocean Modelling, 64. pp. 46-55. ISSN 1463-5003 doi:


Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Gregory, J. ORCID: (2012) Ocean heat uptake and its consequences for the magnitude of sea level rise and climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 39 (18). L18608. ISSN 1944-8007 doi:

Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Smith, R. S. ORCID:, Wang, Z. and Gregory, J. M. ORCID: (2012) The influence of eddy parameterizations on the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in coupled climate models. Ocean Modelling, 52-53. pp. 1-8. ISSN 1463-5003 doi:

Bouttes, N., Gregory, J. M. ORCID:, Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Suzuki, T. (2012) The effect of windstress change on future sea level change in the Southern Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 39 (23). L23602. ISSN 0094-8276 doi:


Wang, Z., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Meredith, M. P. (2011) On the response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport to climate change in coupled climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116. C08011. ISSN 0148-0227 doi:


Cunningham, S., Marsh, R., Wood, R., Wallace, C., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Dye, S. (2010) Atlantic Heat Conveyor (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation). In: Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2010-11, MCCIP Science Review. MCCIP, Lowestoft, 14 pp..


Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Rahmstorf, S., Zickfeld, K., Vikebø, F. B., Sundby, S., Hofmann, M., Link, P. M., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W. and Jaeger, C. (2009) An Integrated Assessment of changes in the thermohaline circulation. Climatic Change, 96 (4). pp. 489-537. ISSN 1573-1480 doi:


Delworth, T. L., Clark, P. U., Holland, M., Johns, T., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Lynch-Stieglitz, C., Seager, R., Weaver, A. J. and Zhang, R. (2008) The potential for abrupt change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. In: Abrupt Climate Change. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. U. S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, pp. 258-359.

Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: (2008) On Sandström's inferences from his tank experiments - a hundred years later. Tellus Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 60 (5). pp. 819-836. ISSN 0280-6495 doi:


Zickfeld, K., Levermann, A., Morgan, M. G., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Rahmstorf, S. and Keith, D. W. (2007) Expert judgements on the response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to climate change. Climatic Change, 82. pp. 235-265. ISSN 0165-0009 doi:

Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Griesel, A., Montoya, M., Levermann, A., Hofmann, M. and Rahmstorf, S. (2007) On the driving processes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Reviews of Geophysics, 45 (2). ISSN 8755-1209 doi:


Lind, P. G., Titz, S., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Corte-Real, J. A. M., Kurths, J., Gallas, J. A. C. and Feudel, U. (2004) Coupled bistable maps: a tool to study convection parameterization ocean models. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 14 (03). pp. 999-1015. ISSN 1793-6551 doi:

Titz, S., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Feudel, U. (2004) Grid geometry effects on convection in ocean climate models: a conceptual study. Ocean Modelling, 7 (1-2). pp. 165-181. ISSN 1463-5003 doi:


Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Monahan, A. H. (2003) Stochastic stability of open-ocean deep convection. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33 (12). pp. 2764-2780. ISSN 0022-3670 doi:<2764:SSOODC>2.0.CO;2


Titz, S., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Feudel, U. (2002) Homoclinic bifurcations in an ocean circulation box model. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 12 (04). pp. 869-875. ISSN 1793-6551 doi:

Titz, S., Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Rahstorf, S. and Feudel, U. (2002) On freshwater-dependent bifurcations in box models of the interhemispheric thermohaline circulation. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 54 (1). pp. 89-98. ISSN 1600-0870 doi:


Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID:, Titz, S., Feudel, U. and Rahmstorf, S. (2001) A simple model of seasonal open ocean convection - Part II: Labrador Sea stability and stochastic forcing? Ocean Dynamics, 52. pp. 36-49. ISSN 1616-7341 doi:


Kuhlbrodt, T. ORCID: and Névir, P. (2000) Low-order point vortex models of atmospheric blocking. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 73. pp. 127-138. ISSN 1436-5065

This list was generated on Thu May 23 20:27:31 2024 UTC.

Last update: 1st February 2024

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