We refer to Flexibility as the capacity to use energy in different locations at different times of day or year (via storage or by changing the timing of activity); to switch fuels; to smooth or create peaks in demand or, in the case of mobility, to re-arrange destinations and journeys in ways that reduce energy demand and/or congestion.

Flexibility is not only about adapting supply to demand or switching fuel to match existing patterns, it is also about recognising that patterns are not fixed: they vary and can partly be shaped by technologies. For example, institutions already intervene to shape patterns of energy demand, but the strategies used tend to work in the background with the aim of minimising disruption to services. The challenge is to find opportunities to adapt social rhythms to better match peaks and troughs of renewable supply.

Lead Organisation CREDS: Environmental Change Institute – University of Oxford

Lead Organisation Flexibility Theme: University of Reading

Flexibility Partners: Lancaster University, Coventry University, Institute for Industrial Production Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, University of Leeds

University of Reading PI (Co-Director): Prof. Jacopo Torriti

University of Reading Co-Investigator: Dr Stefán Thor Smith

PDRA: Dr Jose Luis Ramirez-Mendiola, Dr Samuele Lo Piano, Dr Timur Yunusov

Start and End Date: April 2018 – March 2023