Our Publications

Further Reading

Sainsbury, V.A., Bray, P.J., Gosden, C., and Pollard, A..M. (2021) Mutable objects, places and chronologies. Antiquity  95: 215-227.

 Bray. P.J. (2020) Modelling Roman concepts of copper-alloy recycling and mutability: the chemical characterisation hypothesis and Roman Britain. In C. Duckworth and A. Wilson (eds.) Recycling and Reuse in the Roman Economy.  Oxford, Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy.

Perucchetti, L., Bray, P.J., Felicetti, A., Sainsbury, V., Howarth, P., Saunders, M.K., Hommel, P., and Pollard, A.M. (2020) Flame-D Database: An integrated system for the study of Archaeometallurgy. Archsaeometry. Online Early View.

Liu, R., Pollard, A.M., Cao, Q., Liu, C., Sainsbury, V., Howarth, P., Bray, P.J., Huan, L., Yao, B., Fu, Y., and Tang, J. (2020) Social hierarchy and the choice of metal recycling at Anyang, the last capital of Bronze Age Shang China. Nature Scientific Reports. 10: 18794

Perucchetti, L., Montero-Ruiz, I., and Bray, P.J. (2020) Mapping archaeometallurgical data of the Iberian Copper Age: Different ways to look at a big picture. Journal of Archaeological Science. 119: 105-165

Hommel, P., Bray, P.J., Khvostikov, V.A., Karandashev, V.K., Yu, Loboda, A., Kolchin, A.S, and Shishlina, NI.  (2020) [In Russian] The analysis and interpretation of the gold, silver and copper alloy artefacts in the Borodino Treasure. In N. Shishlina (ed.) Borodino Treasure of the Heroic Era of the Bronze Age: natural science and historical context, 74-100. Proceedings of the State Historical Museum, Moscow. Moscow

 Bray, P.J. and Gilmour, B. (2020) Analysis of an Early Bronze Age Axe from Little Sark. In B. Cunliffe (ed.) Sark: A Sacred Island?, 333-334. Oxford

 Bray, P.J. (2019) Chemistry and Bronze Age metals in Atlantic Europe: Flows of ideas and material. In B. Cunliffe and J. Koch (eds.) Exploring Celtic Origins, 117-153. Oxford: Oxbow

 Bray, P.J. (2019) Biography, prosopography, and the density of scientific data: Some arguments from the metallurgy of Early Bronze Age Britain and Ireland. In Armada, X.-L., Murillo Barosso, M., and Charlton, M. (eds)   Metals, minds and mobility: Integrating scientific data with archaeological theory. 123-134. Oxford: Oxbow Books

Liu, R., Pollard, A.M., Rawson, J., Tang, X., Bray, P.J., and Zhang, C. (2019) Panlongcheng, Zhengzhou and the movement of metal in Early Bronze Age China. Journal of World Prehistory. 32: 393-428

Radivojević, M, Roberts, B.W., Pernicka, E., Stos-Gale, Z., Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, T., Bray, P., Brandherm, D., Ling, J., Mei, J-J.,  Vandkilde, H., Kristiansen, K., Shennan, S.J., and Broodbank, C. (2019) The Provenance, Use, and Circulation of Metals in the European Bronze Age: The State of Debate. Journal of Archaeological Research. 27: 131-185

Gibson, C., Bray, P.J., Cleary, K., Fernández-Palacios, F., and Koch, J. (2019) Mapping the flow: introduction to Atlantic Europe and the Metal Ages Project. In D. Brandherm, (ed.) Aspects of the Bronze Age in the Atlantic Archipelago and Beyond, 77-100. Hagen, Westf.: Curach Bhán Publications

Pollard, A.M., Bray, P.J., Cuénod, A., Hommel, P, Hsu, Y-K., Liu, R., Perucchetti, L., Pouncett, J., and Saunders, M. (2018) Beyond Provenance: New Approaches to Interpreting the Chemistry of Archaeological Copper Alloys. Studies in Archaeological Science. Leuven: Leuven University Press

Pollard, A.M., Bray, P.J., Hommel, P., Hsu, Y.-K., Liu, R. and Rawson, J. (2017). [In Chinese] Applying the Oxford System to further understand Bronzes in China. Kaogu 1: 95-106

Pollard, A.M., Bray, P.J., Hommel, P., Hsu, Y.-K., Liu, R. and Rawson, J. (2017). Bronze Age metal circulation in China. Antiquity 91: 674-687.

Zhangsun, Y. Z., Liu, R. L., Jin, Z. Y., Pollard, A. M., Lu, X., Bray, P. J., Fan, A. C., and Huang, F. (2017) Lead Isotope Analyses Revealed the Key Role of Chang’an in the Mirror Production and Distribution Network During the Han Dynasty. Archaeometry 59: 685-713

 Bray, P.J. (2016) The Saltonstall Early Bronze Age Axe, Prehistoric Yorkshire, 53: 99-103

Bray, P.J. (2016) Metal, metalwork and specialisation: The chemical composition of British Bronze Age swords in context. In Koch, J.T and Cunliffe, B.W. (eds.) Celtic from the West 3 : Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages : questions of shared language. Oxford: Oxbow Books

Hsu, Y-K., Bray, P.J., Hommel, P., Pollard, A.M. and Rawson, J. (2016). Tracing the flows of copper and copper alloys in the Early Iron Age societies of the eastern Eurasian steppe. Antiquity 90: 357-375.

 Bray, P.J. (2015) The role and use of daggers in British Early Bronze Age society: Insights from their chemical composition. In J. Hunter and A. Woodward (eds.) Ritual in Early Bronze Age Grave Groups. Oxford: Oxbow Books

 Bray, P.J.,  Cuénod, A., Gosden, C., Hommel, P., Liu, R., Perucchetti, L. and Pollard, A.M. (2015). Form and flow: The ‘karmic cycle’ of copper. Journal of Archaeological Science 56: 202-209.

Cuénod, A., Bray, P.J. and Pollard, A.M. (2015). The ‘tin problem’ in the Near East – further insights from a study of chemical datasets on copper alloys from Iran and Mesopotamia. Iran, 53: 29-48.

Liu, R., Bray, P.J. and Pollard, A.M. (2015). Chemical analysis of ancient Chinese Bronzes: past, present and future. Archaeological Research in Asia 3: 1–8

Perucchetti, L., Bray, P., Dolfini, A. and Pollard, A.M. (2015). Physical barriers, cultural connections: prehistoric metallurgy in the Alpine region. European Journal of Archaeology 18: 599–632.

Pollard, A.M. and Bray, P.J. (2015) Chemical and isotopic methodologies. In C. Thornton and B. Roberts (ed.) A Global perspective in Early Metallurgy: Methods and Synthesis: 217-238 New York: Springer Publications

Pollard, A.M. and Bray, P.J. (2015) The Archaeological Bazaar: Scientific methods for sale? Or: ‘Putting the ‘Arch-’ back into Archaeometry’ In A. Wylie and B. Chapman (Eds.) Material Culture as Evidence. London: Routledge

Pollard, A.M., Bray, P.J, Gosden, C., Wilson, A. and Hamerow, H. (2015). Characterising copper-based metals in Britain in the First Millennium AD: A preliminary quantification of metal flow and recycling. Antiquity 89: 697–713.

Pollard, A.M. and Bray, P.J. (2015). A new method for combining lead isotope and lead abundance data to characterise archaeological copper alloys. Archaeometry 57: 996–1008.

Pollard, A.M., Bray, P.J. and Gosden, C. (2014). Is there something missing in scientific provenance studies of prehistoric artefacts? Antiquity 88: 625-631.

Bray, P.J. (2012) Before 29Cu became copper: tracing the recognition and invention of metalleity in Britain and Ireland during the third millennium B.C. In M. Allen, J. Gardiner and A. Sheridan (eds.) Is there a British Chalcolithic: people, place and polity in the later 3rd millennium. The Prehistoric Society Research Paper 4: 56-70

 Bray, P.J. and Pollard, A.M. (2012). A new interpretative approach to the chemistry of copper-alloy objects: source, recycling and technology. Antiquity 86: 853-867.

Bray, P.J. and Frieman, C. (2008) Archaeological Techniques. In R. Adkins, L. Adkins and V. Leitch (eds.) Handbook of British Archaeology (2nd Edition): 356-404. London: Constable and Robinson

Bray, P.J. and Frieman, C. (2008) Archaeological Specialisms, Organisations and Legal Factors. In R. Adkins, L. Adkins and V. Leitch (eds.) Handbook of British Archaeology (2nd Edition): 454-464. London: Constable and Robinson

Pollard, A.M and Bray, P.J. (2007) A Bicycle Made for Two? The Integration of Scientific Techniques into Archaeological Interpretation. Annual Review of Anthropology. 36: 245-259

Schroeder, H. and Bray, P. (2007) The opportunities and challenges of crossing disciplinary frontiers in archaeological research. In H. Schroeder, P. Bray, P. Gardner, V. Jefferson and E. Macauley-Lewis, (Eds.) Crossing Frontiers:. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology Monograph 63

Bray, P.J., Blockley, SPE., Coope, GR., Dadswell, LF.,  Elias, SA., Lowe, JJ. and Pollard, AM. (2006) Refining mutual climatic range (MCR) quantitative estimates of palaeotemperature using ubiquity analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews. 25: 1865–1876

Bray, P.J. and Pollard, AM (2005) Comments II: The underpinnings and consequences of the materiality approach. Archaeometry 47: 179-182

Walton, P.J. & Eckardt, H. (in press) Bridge over troubled water. The Roman finds from the River Tees at Piercebridge in context Britannia Special Publication. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

Walton, P.J. (in press) Where, when and what for? Coinage and the Romano-British Rural Landscape. In: M. Henig and B. Soffe (eds.) Roman villas in Britain: a retrospective review. Oxbow Books

Walton, P.J. (in press) The Roman coins from Lynch Farm, Peterborough. In: S. Upex (ed.) Excavations at Lynch Farm II, Peterborough. East Anglian Archaeology Monograph Series

Walton, P.J. (2018) Coins. In: P. Booth & A. Simmonds (eds.) Gill Mill: Later prehistoric landscape and a Roman nucleated settlement in the lower Windrush valley near Witney, Oxfordshire. Oxford Archaeology Thames Valley Landscapes Monograph No. 42: Oxford, 397-402

Walton, P.J. (2017) The coins from Thwing. In: R. Ferraby, P. Johnson, M. Millett & L. Wallace (ed.) Thwing, Rudston and the Roman-period exploitation of the Yorkshire Wolds. Yorkshire Archaeological Report, 73-80

Walton, P.J. and Moorhead, S. (2016) Coinage and the economy. In: M. Millett, A. Moore and L. Revell (eds.) The Oxford Handbook to Roman Britain. Oxford University Press, 834-849

Walton, P.J. and Moorhead, S. (2016) Coinage and collapse. The contribution of numismatic data to understanding the end of Roman Britain. In: J. Gerrard (ed.) Roman Pottery in Fifth Century Britain Internet Archaeology 41

Walton, P.J. (2015) From barbarism to civilisation? Rethinking the monetisation of Roman Britain. Revue Belge de Numismatique et de Sillographie. Vol. CLXI. Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique

Moorhead, T.S.N and Walton, P.J. (2014) Coinage at the end of Roman Britain. In: F. Haarer, (ed.) with R. Collins, K. Fitzpatrick-Matthews, T.S.N. Moorhead. & P.J.Walton. AD 410: The History and Archaeology of Late Roman and Post-Roman Britain. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, 99-116

Walton, P.J. (2013) A ‘poverty stricken coinage’?: Putting the Brading villa coins in context. In: B. Cunliffe (ed.) The Roman villa at Brading, Isle of Wight. Oxford University School of Archaeology Monograph 77, 210-214.

Walton, P.J. (2012) Rethinking Roman Britain: Coinage and Archaeology. Moneta Monograph Series No. 137. Moneta: Wetteren.

Walton, P.J. (2012) The Small Finds. In: J. Proctor (ed.) Faverdale, Darlington. Excavations at a major settlement in the northern frontier zone of Roman Britain. PreConstruct Archaeology Monograph Series No. 15, 123-127

Walton, P.J. (2008) Roman votives from the waters of the Tees: Piercebridge. In: Current Archaeology issue 221, August 2008

Walton, P.J. (2008) The metalwork. In: A. Simmonds (ed.) The excavation of a 1st century  AD field system and associated cremation burials at the Community Hospital, Newbury, West Berkshire. Berkshire Archaeological Journal, 77

Walton, P.J. and Bruns, D. (2007) The Portable Antiquities Scheme in the North. In: S. Thomas and P. Stone (eds.) Metal Detecting and Archaeology: the relationships between archaeologists and metal detector users, 147-152